Recently, gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines have become a topic of interest due to its benefits in high thermal efficiency and low emissions. Combustion in GCI engines is highly governed by the fuel stratification which is strongly associated with the spray characteristics like penetration length. Researchers have proposed both theoretical, and regression models for liquid penetration length of diesel and gasoline direct injection (GDI) spray at non-evaporating conditions. However, there are no models for gasoline sprays at elevated ambient gas temperatures, pressures, and injection pressures in literature. This research gap needs to be bridged, as it is crucial for GCI engine technology. In this study, penetration length was investigated using a high-pressure custom-made multi-hole gasoline injector. High reactivity low carbon fuel (RON 77), designed explicitly for GCI engines, and E10 certification fuel (RON 91) were used and compared. Diffused back illumination (DBI) and shadowgraph were implemented for liquid and vapor phase penetration measurement, respectively. It was found that the spray characteristics of high reactivity fuel were similar to E10 certification fuel under non-reacting conditions. Statistical analysis was performed for both liquid and vapor phase penetration lengths, and empirical models were developed with good agreements to the experimental data under high ambient gas pressure and temperature relevant to GCI engine operating conditions using GCI fuels at higher injection pressures. A ‘separation point’ was defined for the liquid phase after which it reaches a steady state, and it was demonstrated to be different from the ‘breakup time’ found in the literature.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Organic Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology