Major-trace element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of mafic dykes of the Singhbhum Craton: Insights into evolution of the lithospheric mantle

Om Prakash Pandey, Klaus Mezger, Dewashish Upadhyay, Debajyoti Paul, Ajay Kumar Singh, Ulf Söderlund, Ashley Gumsley

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The Singhbhum Craton in eastern India is host to at least seven sets of mafic dyke swarms. Four previously dated swarms (studied here) include the NNE-trending Keshargaria (ca. 2.80 Ga) and Ghatgaon (ca. 2.76 - 2.75 Ga) swarms, the ENE-trending Kaptipada swarm (ca. 2.26 Ga), and the ESE-trending Pipilia swarm (ca.1.76 Ga). The dykes range in composition from basalt to andesite and have transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinities. They show intra- and inter-swarm geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic heterogeneities and have SiO2 content ranging from 47 to 60 wt.%. The chondrite normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE and the Primitive-Mantle normalized multi-element patterns show elevated U, Th, Cs, Rb, K, and Pb; and depletion in Nb, Ta, and Ti. These characteristics indicate involvement of crustal component in the petrogenesis of these dykes. The dykes of different swarms have variable 87Sr/86Sri and εNd(i) values, which define a crust-like isotopic growth trajectory with time from a common chondritic to depleted source that was enriched contemporaneously with the formation of the crustal rocks of the Singhbhum Craton. The isotope data indicate involvement of older enriched crustal material in the petrogenesis of these dykes. Variable but mostly high (compared to similarly evolved magmas) Ni (40 - 590 ppm), Cr (40 - 1110 ppm), and V (120 - 434 ppm) contents particularly of the most primitive dykes indicate that parental melts were in equilibrium with mantle peridotite and experienced only minor fractional crystallization of olivine, pyroxene, and magnetite. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios do not show any correlation with differentiation indices which indicates that the melts were not modified significantly by crustal assimilation during ascent and emplacement. The crust-like secular trend of the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions suggests that the enriched crustal material was incubated in the mantle (i.e., metasomatized lithospheric mantle) for a long time and this source was periodically tapped leading to multiple dyke emplacement events over at least 1 Gyr. The recycled crustal material played a role in metasomatizing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle prior to ca. 2.80 Ga. Mantle plume activity triggered melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle many times, leading to the emplacement of mafic dykes of different generations across the craton.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


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