Metal and ligand K-edge XAS of titanium-TEMPO complexes: Determination of oxidation states and insights into Ti-O bond homolysis

Serena De Beer George*, Kuo Wei Huang, Robert M. Waymouth, Edward I. Solomon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Ti-TEMPO (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) provides a means for generating Ti(III) complexes by homolysis of the Ti-O bond. It has been determined that bis-Cp-Ti-TEMPO complexes readily undergo homolytic cleavage while the mono-Cp-Ti-TEMPO complexes do not. Here Ti K- and Cl K-edge XAS are applied to directly determine the oxidation state of TiCl3TEMPO, TiCpCl2TEMPO, and TiCp2ClTEMPO, with reference to Ti(III) and Ti(IV) complexes of known oxidation state. The Ti K-edge data show that Ti(III) complexes exhibit a pre-edge feature ∼1 eV lower than any of the Ti(IV) complexes; while the Cl K-edges show that Ti(III) complexes have a Cl K- pre-edge feature to ∼1 eV higher energy than any of the Ti(IV) complexes. Taken together, the Ti and Cl K-edge data indicate that the Ti-TEMPO complexes are best described as Ti(IV)-TEMPO anions (rather than Ti(III)-nitroxyl radicals). In addition, the Cl K-edges indicate that replacement of Cl by Cp weakens the bonding with the remaining ligands, with the Cl 3p covalency decreasing from 25% to 21% to 17% on going from TiCl3-TEMPO to TiCpCl2TEMPO to TiCp2ClTEMPO. DFT calculations also show that the electronic structures of the Ti-TEMPO complexes are modulated by the replacement of chloride by Cp. The effect of the Cp on the ancillary ligation is one factor that contributes to facile Ti-O bond homolysis in TiCp 2ClTEMPO. However, the results indicate the primary contribution to the energetics of Ti-O bond homolysis in TiCp2ClTEMPO is stabilization of the three-coordinate product by Cp.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4468-4477
Number of pages10
JournalInorganic chemistry
Issue number11
StatePublished - May 29 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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