Micro-Optics 3D Printed via Multi-Photon Laser Lithography

Diana Gonzalez-Hernandez, Simonas Varapnickas, Andrea Bertoncini, Carlo Liberale*, Mangirdas Malinauskas*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


The field of 3D micro-optics is rapidly expanding, and essential advances in femtosecond laser direct-write 3D multi-photon lithography (MPL, also known as two-photon or multi-photon polymerization) are being made. Micro-optics realized via MPL emerged a decade ago and the field has exploded during the last five years. Impressive findings have revealed its potential for beam shaping, advanced imaging, optical sensing, integrated photonic circuits, and much more. This is supported by a game-changing and increasing industrial interest from key established companies in this field. In this review, the origin and the advancement of micro-optics fabrication with MPL are detailed by describing the chronology, distinguishing discrete application groups, providing generalized technical data on the processes and available materials, and discussing the foreseen near-future advances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2201701
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 4 2023


  • fiber-optics
  • integrated devices
  • laser 3D printing
  • micro-optics
  • nano-photonics
  • nanotechnology
  • two-photon polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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