Background: Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of antrochoanal polyps (ACPs); however, the cause is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and the potential role of a battery of molecular markers in the development of ACPs. A prospective controlled study of a case series was performed. Methods: Tissue samples of maxillary sinus mucosa were obtained from 14 patients with ACPs, 17 patients with chronic nonpolypoid maxillary sinusitis, and 4 patients with normal maxillary sinus mucosa; RNAs were extracted from the sinus mucosa, and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor β, and mucin genes (MUC), MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8, to investigate their expression. Results: The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor β was significantly higher in ACPs than in chronic rhinosinusitis and healthy mucosa. Meanwhile, the levels of expression of MUC genes were higher in ACPs and chronic rhinosinusitis compared with healthy mucosa. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ACPs may represent an inflammatory reaction caused by overproduction of tissue-derived growth factors in an inductive environment. Copyright © 2006, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.
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