Multi-cation Synergy Suppresses Phase Segregation in Mixed-Halide Perovskites

Hoang X. Dang, Kai Wang, Masoud Ghasemi, Ming-Chun Tang, Michele de Bastiani, Erkan Aydin, Emilie Dauzon, Dounya Barrit, Jun Peng, Detlef M. Smilgies, Stefaan De Wolf, Aram Amassian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Scopus citations


Mixed lead halide perovskite solar cells have been demonstrated to benefit tremendously from the addition of Cs+ and Rb+, but its root cause is yet to be understood. This hinders further improvement, and processing approaches remain largely empirical. We address the challenge by tracking the solidification of precursors in situ and linking the evolutions of different crystalline phases to the presence of Cs+ and Rb+. In their absence, the perovskite film is inherently unstable, segregating into MA-I- and FA-Br-rich phases. Adding either Cs+ or Rb+ is shown to alter the solidification process of the perovskite films. The optimal addition of both Cs+ and Rb+ drastically suppress phase segregation and promotes the spontaneous formation of the desired α phase. We propose that the synergistic effect is due to the collective benefits of Cs+ and Rb+ on the formation kinetics of the α phase and on the halide distribution throughout the film.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1746-1764
Number of pages19
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jun 6 2019


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