Multiple plastids collected by the dinoflagellate Dinophysis mitra through kleptoplastidy

Goh Nishitani, Satoshi Nagai*, Shiho Hayakawa, Yuki Kosaka, Kiyonari Sakurada, Takashi Kamiyama, Takashi Gojobori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Kleptoplastidy is the retention of plastids obtained from ingested algal prey, which may remain temporarily functional and be used for photosynthesis by the predator. We showed that the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis mitra has great kleptoplastid diversity. We obtained 308 plastid rbcL sequences by gene cloning from 14 D. mitra cells and 102 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Most sequences were new in the genetic database and positioned within Haptophyceae (227 sequences [73.7%], 80 OTUs [78.4%]), particularly within the genus Chrysochromulina. Others were closely related to Prasinophyceae (16 sequences [5.2%], 5 OTUs [4.9%]), Dictyochophyceae (14 sequences [4.5%], 5 OTUs [4.9%]), Pelagophyceae (14 sequences [4.5%], 1 OTU [1.0%]), Bolidophyceae (3 sequences [1.0%], 1 OTU [1.0%]), and Bacillariophyceae (1 sequence [0.3%], 1 OTU [1.0%]); however, 33 sequences (10.8%) as 9 OTUs (8.8%) were not closely clustered with any particular group. Only six sequences were identical to those of Chrysochromulina simplex, Chrysochromulina hirta, Chrysochromulina sp. TKB8936, Micromonas pusilla NEPCC29, Micromonas pusilla CCMP491, and an unidentified diatom. Thus, we detected >100 different plastid sequences from 14 D. mitra cells, strongly suggesting kleptoplastidy and the need for mixotrophic prey such as Laboea, Tontonia, and Strombidium-like ciliates, which retain numerous symbiotic plastids from different origins, for propagation and plastid sequestration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)813-821
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Ecology


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