Multivariate α-stable distributions: VAR(1) processes, measures of dependence and their estimations

Maicon J. Karling, Sílvia R.C. Lopes*, Roberto M. de Souza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Measuring the dependency between lagged random vectors in time series is extremely important to detect appropriate models for fitting real data. Vector autoregressive processes (VAR), in particular, are among the most popular multivariate time series that allow modeling schemes for two or more random variables. However, if the series of innovations process does not have finite second-order moments, the classical analysis that uses the empirical auto-covariance function is not adequate as its theoretical counterpart is not defined. After perceiving the lack of a suitable multivariate version of the codifference function, we propose an adaptation of this tool to measure interdependence in multivariate α-stable processes. We establish such a function based on notions presented in the existing literature. We also show some of its properties and give an estimator based on the empirical characteristic function. Subsequently, we evaluate another measure of dependence with different properties but similar usage for comparison reasons. These two measures are computed for VAR(1) processes with α-stable innovations, proving to be useful in the identification of associated patterns related to them. Finally, we demonstrate how these measures can be applied with real data sets by analyzing the monthly number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and the registered values of PM10 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2008 to December 2021.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105153
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Bayesian techniques
  • Codifference
  • Measures of dependence
  • Multivariate α-stable distributions
  • Simulations
  • Spectral covariance
  • Vector autoregressive processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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