An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level. Applications of nanosensors to plant biology are discussed in the context of nutrient management, disease assessment, food production, detection of DNA proteins, and the regulation of plant hormones. Current trends and future needs are discussed with respect to the emerging trends of precision agriculture, urban farming, and plant nanobionics.