NERO: a biomedical named-entity (recognition) ontology with a large, annotated corpus reveals meaningful associations through text embedding

Kanix Wang, Robert Stevens, Halima Alachram, Yu Li, Larisa Soldatova, Ross King, Sophia Ananiadou, Annika M. Schoene, Maolin Li, Fenia Christopoulou, José Luis Ambite, Joel Matthew, Sahil Garg, Ulf Hermjakob, Daniel Marcu, Emily Sheng, Tim Beißbarth, Edgar Wingender, Aram Galstyan, Xin GaoBrendan Chambers, Weidi Pan, Bohdan B. Khomtchouk, James A. Evans, Andrey Rzhetsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Machine reading (MR) is essential for unlocking valuable knowledge contained in millions of existing biomedical documents. Over the last two decades1,2, the most dramatic advances in MR have followed in the wake of critical corpus development3. Large, well-annotated corpora have been associated with punctuated advances in MR methodology and automated knowledge extraction systems in the same way that ImageNet4 was fundamental for developing machine vision techniques. This study contributes six components to an advanced, named entity analysis tool for biomedicine: (a) a new, Named Entity Recognition Ontology (NERO) developed specifically for describing textual entities in biomedical texts, which accounts for diverse levels of ambiguity, bridging the scientific sublanguages of molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine; (b) detailed guidelines for human experts annotating hundreds of named entity classes; (c) pictographs for all named entities, to simplify the burden of annotation for curators; (d) an original, annotated corpus comprising 35,865 sentences, which encapsulate 190,679 named entities and 43,438 events connecting two or more entities; (e) validated, off-the-shelf, named entity recognition (NER) automated extraction, and; (f) embedding models that demonstrate the promise of biomedical associations embedded within this corpus.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Journalnpj Systems Biology and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 20 2021


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