Background: Noninvasive mucosal immune responses have been shown to be important in controlling various infections through the mucosal route. Therefore, the appropriate induction of humoral, mucosal and cellular immune response should be elicited after immunization. Objective: The objective of this review is to give an overview of novel strategies and patents for the delivery of vaccines through the mucosal route. Method: Different strategies have been developed and patented to facilitate and enhance the mucosal immunity, including the use of lipid-based delivery systems (i.e., liposomes, virosomes, archaeosomes, chochleated, immune stimulating complexes), entrapment/encapsulation of immunogens into polymeric matrix (poly(lactide-co-glycolide), chitosan, alginates, carbopol, gelatin etc.), admixing of immunogens with mucosal adjuvants (cholera toxin or CT, enterotoxin, lipid A, tetanus toxin or lymphotactin), use of live attenuated bacterial and viral vector encoding antigen of interest and ingestible plant-based mucosal vaccines. Conclusion: Lipid- and polymer-based novel delivery systems have been widely investigated in mucosal vaccine delivery systems. Recent advancement in the molecular technology has also shown great potential of genetic immunization for the delivery of wide range of infectious molecular targets. Effective and selective delivery of vaccines through the mucosal route could provide new therapeutic conduit in the treatment of mucous-associated disease. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery