As an efficient supplement for terrestrial communications, e.g., fifth-generation communication networks, satellite communication has been proved as a promising choice to realize seamless coverage, due to its inherent superiority over common wireless communication systems, like large-scale coverage area and flexibility of deployment. In this paper, a satellite-terrestrial transmission (STT) system including a satellite transmitter (S) and a group of terrestrial receivers (D) is focused on. Considering the randomness of D and employing stochastic geometry, the outage performance and diversity gain of three hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) schemes, generalized slotted ALOHA (GSA), repetition time diversity (RTD) and general incremental redundancy (IR), are respectively studied. In detail, the exact closed-form analytical expression for the outage probability (OP) is derived for the GSA scheme, while the approximated expression for the OP of RTD scheme is presented and a useful expression for the OP of IR scheme is derived. Furthermore, the diversity gains of the three considered HARQ schemes are respectively investigated in STT scenarios. Finally, some numerical results are provided to validate the proposed analysis models.