On the combined effects of compositional inhomogeneity and ammonia addition to turbulent flames of ethylene

Wesley R. Boyette*, Andrew R.W. Macfarlane, Scott A. Steinmetz, Matt J. Dunn, William L. Roberts, Assaad R. Masri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This paper is part of a broader program aimed at investigating the effects of co-firing clean fuels such as ammonia or hydrogen with hydrocarbons. The focus is on soot formation as well as flame stability in turbulent mixed-mode combustion, which is highly relevant in practical combustors. Ammonia substitution for nitrogen results in reduced flame stability, and this is correlated to differences in flame speed and extinction strain rate. While it is known that the addition of ammonia suppresses soot, visual inspection of compositionally inhomogeneous flames of ethylene-ammonia indicates a reduction in ammonia's ability to suppress soot formation. Measurements of soot volume fraction and laser-induced fluorescence in selected UV and visible bands are made along the centreline in selected flames to test this hypothesis. Experimental results are then compared to simulations in laminar diffusion flames, stratified counterflow flames, and partially premixed flames. All results confirm the soot-inhibiting ability of ammonia. Increasing inhomogeneity, leading to higher centreline mixture fractions, enhances soot formation, and the level of enhancement is greater for flames with ammonia than without. Moreover, it is found that partial premixing is ultimately responsible for determining the amount of soot formed as opposed to stratification of fuel mixtures near the pilot.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4355-4364
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Ammonia
  • Compositional inhomogeneity
  • Mixed-mode combustion
  • Turbulent flames

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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