One-year outdoor operation of monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells

Maxime Babics, Michele De Bastiani*, Esma Ugur, Lujia Xu, Helen Bristow, Francesco Toniolo, Waseem Raja, Anand S. Subbiah, Jiang Liu, Luis V. Torres Merino, Erkan Aydin, Shruti Sarwade, Thomas G. Allen, Arsalan Razzaq, Nimer Wehbe, Michael F. Salvador, Stefaan De Wolf*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells have gained significant attention as a viable commercial solution for ultra-high-efficiency photovoltaics. Ongoing research efforts focus on improving device performance, stability, and upscaling. Yet, paradoxically, their outdoor behavior remains largely unexplored. Here, we describe their performance over a complete calendar year outdoors in the area of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, which represents a hot and humid environment. After 1 year, our test device retains 80% of its initial power conversion efficiency. Further, we find three critical factors affecting current matching: the module temperature; deviations of the local, actual solar spectrum from the AM1.5G standard, which dictates optical design requirements of the subcells; and module soiling due to a spectrally non-uniform transmission of light through the accumulated dust. Overall, our results underline the promise of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells as a future high-performance technology, yet device tailoring toward targeted deployment may be desired to achieve maximum energy yields.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101280
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 15 2023


  • degradation
  • encapsulation
  • multijunction
  • outdoor
  • perovskite
  • silicon
  • stability
  • tandem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Energy
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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