Conventional urea is lost due to its high water solubility and microbial transformations which results low agriculture productivity and environmental pollution. To solve these problems, rosin adduct-coated controlled release urea fertilizer (RA-CRUF) was prepared. Properties of rosin adduct with maleic anhydride were optimized during synthesis by varying the reaction temperature (120, 140 and 160 °C), reaction time (2, 4, 6 h) and coating repeats (3, 6, 9 cycles). Twenty different rosin adduct compositions were coated by spraying of rosin adduct on urea to prepare RA-CRUF. The best optimized response of urea release for RA-CRUF was 510.00 mg L −1 in water at optimized values of coating repeats (6.79 cycles), reaction time (4.71 h) and reaction temperature (137.39 °C). The Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the reaction of rosin with maleic anhydride at wavenumber 1780 cm −1 and 1856 cm −1 correspond to carbonyl of cyclic anhydride group. The optical microscopy analysis of surface and cross view of RA-CRUF showed a high homogeneity of coating surface. The cumulative urea release was 41.76% and 47.23% for RA-CRUF compared 100% and 82.6% for conventional urea in clay loam texture and loam texture soils respectively. RA-CRUF effect on growth performance of maize plant showed healthy growth and increase in chlorophyll contents up to 51.11 mg g −1 (clay loam texture soil) and 87.55 mg g −1 (loam texture soil).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science