Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) represents the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Researching natural history of HPV infection is important to identify high-risk population of cervical cancer. Since HPV infection is populationspecific, the findings in western populations could not be simply extended to Chinese and Asian females. This study investigated the type-specific persistence of HPV and related factors among Daqing City women in China. A total of 1759 women aged 18-80 years were enrolled at baseline. Cervical cell specimens were collected for cytological examination and HPV detection. HPV-positive individuals with normal cytology were followed up after 12 months. The results showed that HPV prevalence was 8.64% at baseline, of which 85 HPV-positive cases with normal cytology were followed up. The one-year type-specific persistence of HPV and high-risk types were 34.12% (29/85) and 34.25% (25/73), respectively. The top three high-risk types were HPV16 (7/17, 41.18%), HPV18 (5/8, 62.50%) and HPV58 (7/15, 46.67%). Age > 50 years was significantly associated with a higher risk of HPV persistence compared to ≤ 50 (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.07, 6.93). In conclusion, approximately one-third of Daqing City women with HPV infection had at least one-year viral persistence, most of which were high-risk types. Older age represents a risk factor of HPV persistence. Copyright: Li et al.