Photoacoustic Detection of Superoxide Using Oxoporphyrinogen and Porphyrin

Jean Michél Merkes, Magnus Rueping, Fabian Kiessling, Srinivas Banala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The superoxide (O2•-) ion is a highly reactive oxygen species involved in many diseases; hence, its noninvasive detection is desirable to identify the onset of pathological processes. Here, we employed photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy, which enables imaging at ultrasound resolution with the sensitivity of optical modality, for the first time to detect O2•-, using stimuli-responsive contrast agents. meso-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrins and oxoporphyrinogens were used as PA contrast agents, which trap the O2•- and enable its detection. The trapped O2•- increased the PA signal amplitude of chromophores up to 9.6-fold, and induced a red-shift in the PA signal maxima of up to 225 nm. Therefore, these trigger-responsive probes may be highly valuable as smart diagnostic PA probes to investigate pathological events stimulated by O2•- species.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2001-2008
Number of pages8
JournalACS sensors
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 2 2019


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