Jatropha curcas, a non-edible oil bearing species with multiple uses, and considerable economic potential is emerging as a potential biofuel plant. The limited knowledge of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a biofuel crop. Hence, genetic improvement of Jatropha is essential by conventional and modern biotechnological tools to use as a viable alternative source of bio-diesel. Realising its potential as a bio-energy crop, in vitro regeneration methods have been established to meet the demand of large scale supply of superior clones, and also as a prelude for genetic improvement of the species through transgenic approaches. In this chapter, an overview of in vitro tissue culture and genetic transformation of Jatropha is discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights are reserved.