Porous graphitic carbon nitrides integrated biosensor for sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I

Walaa Khushaim, Karthik Peramaiah, Tutku Beduk, Mani Teja Vijjapu, José Ilton de Oliveira Filho, Kuo Wei Huang, Veerappan Mani*, Khaled Nabil Salama*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has the potential to save millions of lives each year. Sensitive quantitative measurement of blood cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is required for early diagnosis of CVDs. Porous graphitic carbon nitride (PCN) nanomaterials integrated biosensor that detects picogram/mL concentrations of cTnI is reported. PCN is an updated version of graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) with improved porosity and electronic structure. A rapid two-step chemical method was described to synthesize PCN and gold nanoparticles functionalized PCN (PCN-AuNPs). The modification of the electrode surface with PCN materials had a significant impact on the electrochemically active surface area (EASA), interfacial electron transport, aptamer immobilization, and biosensing performance. The use of PCN nanomaterial in cTnI aptasensing resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in signal amplification. PCN-AuNPs found practically applicable in human blood serum (cTnI-spiked). Furthermore, a low-cost and user-friendly sensing platform has been demonstrated by integrating a PCN-AuNPs aptasensor, a custom-made miniaturized potentiostat, and a smartphone, which provided rapid, sensitive point-of-care (PoC) analysis of cTnI. Highly sensitive detection limit (0.01 pg/mL), rapid analysis time (2 min), and small sample volume (20 μL) are the other advantages of this nano-biosensor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100234
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics: X
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • 2D materials
  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Biosensors
  • Carbon nitride
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Electrochemical

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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