Prediction of antibiotic-resistance genes occurrence at a recreational beach with deep learning models

Jiyi Jang, Ather Abbas, Minjeong Kim, Jingyeong Shin, Young Mo Kim, Kyung Hwa Cho*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been reported to threaten the public health of beachgoers worldwide. Although ARG monitoring and beach guidelines are necessary, substantial efforts are required for ARG sampling and analysis. Accordingly, in this study, we predicted ARGs occurrence that are primarily found on the coast after rainfall using a conventional long short-term memory (LSTM), LSTM-convolutional neural network (CNN) hybrid model, and input attention (IA)-LSTM. To develop the models, 10 categories of environmental data collected at 30-min intervals and concentration data of 4 types of major ARGs (i.e., aac(6′-Ib-cr), blaTEM, sul1, and tetX) obtained at the Gwangalli Beach in South Korea, between 2018 and 2019 were used. When individually predicting ARGs occurrence, the conventional LSTM and IA-LSTM exhibited poor R2 values during training and testing. In contrast, the LSTM-CNN exhibited a 2–6-times improvement in accuracy over those of the conventional LSTM and IA-LSTM. However, when predicting all ARGs occurrence simultaneously, the IA-LSTM model exhibited a superior performance overall compared to that of LSTM-CNN. Additionally, the influence of environmental variables on prediction was investigated using the IA-LSTM model, and the ranges of input variables that affect each ARG were identified. Consequently, this study demonstrated the possibility of predicting the occurrence and distribution of major ARGs at the beach based on various environmental variables, and the results are expected to contribute to management of ARG occurrence at a recreational beach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number117001
JournalWater research
StatePublished - May 15 2021


  • Antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs)
  • deep neural network
  • input attention
  • long short-term memory (LSTM)
  • prediction model
  • recreational beach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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