Quantification and analysis of CO2 footprint from industrial facilities in Saudi Arabia

Ali Hamieh, Feras Rowaihy, Mohammed Al-Juaied, Ahmed Nabil Abo-Khatwa, Abdulkader M. Afifi, Hussein Hoteit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is among the countries that committed to taking measures to cut greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. KSA has rolled out the 2030 Vision aiming at creating a more diverse and sustainable economy that cascaded into a series of initiatives, including the circular carbon economy, Saudi green initiative, and the national renewable energy program. Furthermore, KSA has recently announced an ambitious goal to reach net-zero goal by 2060. In its updated nationally determined contribution (NDC), the Kingdom committed to reducing its carbon emissions by 278 million tons of CO2eq (equivalent) annually by 2030. This ambition is more than a twofold increase versus the previously announced target (130 million tons of CO2eq). With no current plans to change its hydrocarbon production rates, this reduction in emissions would be achieved mainly through diversifying its energy mix, increasing the efficiency of industrial processes, and deploying carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS). To achieve this goal, it is vital to establish a detailed register for CO2 emissions from stationary industrial sources to design optimum and effective CCUS applications. This register includes details about the emission source locations, rates, and characteristics. For the first time, this paper provides a country-wide extensive study that maps out CO2 emissions from stationary industrial emitters associated with the leading six industries in the country, which are electricity generation, desalination, oil refining, cement, petrochemicals, and iron & steel. Moreover, CO2 concentrations within the emitted flue gas from these resources are estimated, which is crucial to determine the capture cost. This study aims to provide a vital resource for researchers and policymakers who seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by promoting renewable energy, improving the efficiency of existing fossil-fuel-based industries, and evaluating the potential of CCUS in KSA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100299
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management: X
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Carbon emissions
  • CCUS
  • Circular carbon economy
  • CO capture and storage
  • Greenhouse gases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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