Rational design and modulation strategies of Mo-based electrocatalysts and photo/electrocatalysts towards nitrogen reduction to ammonia (NH3)

Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Babar, Umair Azhar, Muhammad Sagir, Muhammad Bilal Tahir, Muhammad Asim Mushtaq, Ghulam Yasin, Muhammad Mubashir, Jun Wei Roy Chong, Kuan Shiong Khoo, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

As a promising strategy of free energy storage carrier, mainly ammonia (NH3) is produced through the Haber-Bosch process, having extensive requirement of the energy along with the emission of greenhouse gases. However, as a potential Haber-Bosch replacement, the advancement in the photo/electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction process (NRR) is being investigated as a zero-emission electrocatalytic approach by providing alternative routes to achieve green NH3 synthesis. The low selectivity, limited N2 adsorption, and low production rate are major drawbacks. The Mo-based electrocatalysts, which are positioned at the top of the NRR volcano diagram among all metal species, possess the strong capability to catalyze the NRR as an efficient non-noble metal-based material effectively, that indeed required a limiting potential of about 0.5 V for NH3 production on the flat (1 1 0) Mo surface. The current review is designed to compile the latest progress in catalytic NRR. The processes are described, as well as a computational screening of heterogeneous catalysts along with a logical design of the electrochemical system. Furthermore, the modification strategies including defects/vacancy, alloying and interfacial structures, as well as morphological fine structural tuning are presented here as novel Mo-based photo/electrocatalysts for NRR application. Finally, the present challenges and potential for catalyzing NRR are discussed
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume451
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Chemistry
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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