In the last few decades, the exponential rise in the incidence of viral infections sets a global health emergency across the world. The biomimetic architecture, the ability to hijack host immune responses, continuous antigen shifting, and drafting are the major critical factors that are responsible for the unavailability of a concrete therapeutic regimen against viral infections. Further, inappropriate pharmacodynamic physicochemical and biological parameters such as low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, high affinity for plasm proteins, short biological half-lives, and fast elimination from the systemic circulation are the major critical factors that govern the suboptimal drug concentration at the target site that leads to the development of drug resistance. To address this issue, nanotechnology-based drug delivery approach is emerged as an altering method to attain the optimal drug concentration at the target site for a prolonged period by integrating the nanoengineering tools in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanodimensional configuration with enhanced permeability and retention effect, increased surface-area-to-volume ratio, provision for surface functionalization, etc., are the privileged aspects that make it an effective drug delivery system for dispensing the antiviral therapeutics. However, size, shape, charge, and surface topology of nanoparticles are the greater influential factors that determine target-specific drug delivery, optimum cellular uptake, degree of opsonization by the host immune cells, drug retention time, transcytosis, the extension of biological half-life, in vivo stability, and cytotoxicity. The review will enlighten the elaborative role of nanotechnology-based drug delivery and the major challenging aspect of clinical safety and efficacy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science