The industrial and agricultural revolution has posed a serious and potential threat to environment. The industrial and agricultural pollutants are directly released into the environment. This issue has clinched the scientists to work on different materials in order to decontaminate the environment. Among all other techniques, the membrane filtration technology has fascinated researchers to overcome the pollution by its promising features. This review elaborated various membrane synthesis approaches along with their mechanism of filtration, their applications towards environmental remediation such as removal of heavy metals, degradation of dyes, pharma waste, organic pollutants, as well as gas sensing applications. The membrane synthesis using different sort of materials in which inorganic, carbon materials, polymers and metal organic framework (MOFs) are highlighted. These materials have been involved in synthesis of membrane to make it more cost effective and productive to remove such hazardous materials from wastewater. Based on the reported literature, it has been found that inorganic and polymer membranes are facing issues of brittleness and swelling prior to the industrial scale applications related to the high temperature and pressure which needs to be addressed to enhance the permeation performance.