Since the emergence of the first electrochemical energy storage (EES) device in 1799, various types of aqueous Zn-based EES devices (AZDs) have been proposed and studied. The benefits of EES devices using Zn anodes and aqueous electrolytes are well established and include competitive electrochemical performance, low-cost, ease of manufacture, good safety, and environmentally benign characters. Over 50 different types of AZDs (the combination of electrodes and configurations) have been invented; some of them have dominated the current primary battery market, while others are considered promising next-generation EES devices. While most of the existing reviews in this area consider the progress of a particular device or single component, this work adopts a holistic perspective to summarize and review all types of key devices and representative AZDs. First, this work will discuss electrochemical charge storage mechanisms and interface properties in AZDs. Next, the classification, challenges, recent progress, and promising strategies of each key component will be provided. Finally, the way in which components can be assembled to meet the requirements of specific scenarios, including high-capacity, (ultra)high-power, or high-energy applications, will be considered. This work does not attempt to introduce all recent progress but only discuss the most representative work with a view to figure out suitable directions for the advancement of this field.