Contaminated soil containing toxic metals and metalloids is found everywhere globally. As a consequence of adsorption and precipitation reactions, metals are comparatively immobile in subsurface systems. Hence remediation techniques in such contaminated sites have targeted the solid phase sources of metals such as sludges, debris, contaminated soils, or wastes. Over the last three decades, the accumulation of these toxic substances inside the soil has increased dramatically, putting the ecosystem and human health at risk. Pollution of heavy metal have posed severe impacts on human, and it affects the environment in different ways, resulting in industrial anger in many countries. Various procedures, including chemical, biological, physical, and integrated approaches, have been adopted to get rid of this type of pollution. Expenditure, timekeeping, planning challenges, and state-of-the-art gadget involvement are some drawbacks that need to be properly handled. Recently in situ metal immobilization, plant restoration, and biological methods have changed the dynamics and are considered the best solution for removing metals from soil. This review paper critically evaluates and analyzes the numerous approaches for preparing heavy metal-free soil by adopting different soil remediation methods.
- Environmental Science(all)