Low-Q region Rietveld analyses were performed on C-S-H synchrotron XRD patterns, using the software MAUD. Two different crystal structures of tobermorite 11 Å were used as a starting model: monoclinic ordered Merlino tobermorite, and orthorhombic disordered Hamid tobermorite. Structural modifications were required to adapt the structures to the chemical composition and the different interlayer spacing of the C-S-H samples. Refinement of atomic positions was done by using special constraints called fragments that maintain interatomic distances and orientations within atomic polyhedra. Anisotropic crystallite size refinement showed that C-S-H has a nanocrystalline disordered structure with a preferred direction of elongation of the nanocrystallites in the plane of the Ca interlayer. The quality of the fit showed that the monoclinic structure gives a more adequate representation of C-S-H, whereas the disordered orthorhombic structure can be considered a more realistic model if the lack of long-range order of the silica chain along the c-direction is assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.