Mechanical properties of layered rocks are critical in ensuring wellbore integrity and predicting natural fracture occurrence for successful reservoir development, particularly in unconventional reservoirs for which fractures provide the main pathway for hydrocarbon flow. We examine rock mechanical properties of exceptionally organic-rich, immature source rocks from Jordan and understand their relationships with rock mineral composition and lithofacies variations. Four depositional microfacies were identified: organic-rich mudstone, organic-rich wackestone, silica-rich packstone, and fine-grained organic-rich wackestone. The four types exhibit various mineralogical compositions, dominated by carbonates, biogenic quartz, and apatite. Leeb hardness ranges between 288 – 654, with the highest average values in silica-rich packstone and organic-rich mudstone. The highest uniaxial compressive strength (derived from the intrinsic specific energy measured by Epslog's Wombat scratch device), compressional, and shear waves velocities were measured in organic-rich mudstones (140 MPa, 3368 m/s, and 1702 m/s, respectively). Porosity shows higher average values in organic-rich wackestones and fine-grained organic-rich wackestones (33% – 35%). Silica-rich packstone and organic-rich mudstone have brittle properties, while organic-rich wackestone and fine-grained organic-rich wackestone are ductile. High silica contents are correlated positively with brittleness. A strong hardness-brittleness correlation suggests that Leeb hardness is a useful proxy for brittleness. Our study allows a better understanding of the relationships between lithofacies, organic content and rock mechanical properties, with implications for fracking design to well completion and hydrocarbon production. Further work involving systematic sampling and a more rigorous study is still required to better understand the spatial distribution of target lithologies and their mechanical properties.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Economic Geology
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Fuel Technology