Determined to advance toward a post-oil era, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rapidly transforming its economy and social structures. The country is targeting new industries, investing in large-scale development projects, and opening its borders for tourism. Through these ambitious projects, the Kingdom envisions an economic and environmentally sustainable future independent of petroleum export. However, these plans also pose major challenges to terrestrial and marine ecosystems, particularly because much of this effort focuses on development along remote coastal regions with historically low human populations. Here, we present the historical use, current state, and future projections of coastal marine resources of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Focusing on fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, we discuss the potential challenges and opportunities of increasing coastal developments in light of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030.