Scalable Two-Step Production of High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules

Zhifang Wu, Enbing Bi, Chongwen Li, Lei Chen, Zhaoning Song, Yanfa Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated in laboratories have already achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) comparable to market-dominant crystalline silicon solar cells. However, this promising photovoltaic technology suffers from severe loss of PCE during scaling up, limiting its progress toward commercialization. One critical question is to develop scalable, low-cost, high throughput, and well-controlled production methods to deposit high-quality perovskite films. Among various approaches, two-step sequential deposition methods have their unique advantages but have been long overlooked. This review provides an overview of two-step methods for fabricating efficient and stable perovskite solar modules (PSMs). We first discuss the mechanisms of two-step perovskite conversion and advanced engineering approaches to modulate the perovskite formation process. We survey the progress of efficient PSCs prepared by different two-step methods and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method for scalable production of PSMs. Particularly, we highlight that the vapor-based two-step methods are promising for high-throughput in-line production of PSMs. Finally, we provide insights into the challenges and outlook of the industrialization of two-step processes for producing PSMs.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSolar RRL
StatePublished - Oct 6 2022


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