Scaled Deposition of Ti3C2Tx MXene on Complex Surfaces: Application Assessment as Rear Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

Erkan Aydin, Jehad K. El-Demellawi, Emre Yarali, Faisal Aljamaan, Simone Sansoni, Atteq ur Rehman, George Harrison, Jingxuan Kang, Abdulrahman El Labban, Michele De Bastiani, Arsalan Razzaq, Emmanuel Van Kerschaver, Thomas G. Allen, Omar F. Mohammed, Thomas Anthopoulos, Husam N. Alshareef*, Stefaan De Wolf*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) are of great interest as electrode materials for a variety of applications, including solar cells, due to their tunable optoelectronic properties, high metallic conductivity, and attractive solution processability. However, thus far, MXene electrodes have only been exploited for lab-scale device applications. Here, to demonstrate the potential of MXene electrodes at an industry-relevant level, we implemented a scalable spray coating technique to deposit highly conductive (ca. 8000 S/cm, at a ca. 55 nm thickness) Ti3C2Tx films (Tx: surface functional groups, i.e., −OH, −O, −F) via an automated spray system. We employed these Ti3C2Tx films as rear electrodes for silicon heterojunction solar cells as a proof of concept. The spray-deposited MXene flakes have formed a conformal coating on top of the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated random pyramidal textured silicon wafers, leading to >20% power conversion efficiency (PCE) over both medium-sized (4.2 cm2) and large (243 cm2, i.e., industry-sized 6 in. pseudosquare wafers) cell areas. Notably, the Ti3C2Tx-rear-contacted devices have retained around 99% of their initial PCE for more than 600 days of ambient air storage. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art solar cells contacted with sputtered silver electrodes. Our findings demonstrate the high-throughput potential of spray-coated MXene-based electrodes for solar cells in addition to a wider variety of electronic device applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2419-2428
Number of pages10
JournalACS Nano
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 22 2022


  • cost-effective electrodes
  • industrial-size MXene
  • large-area devices
  • textured surfaces
  • uniform coatings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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