Severe weather events and the resulting sea-level extremes are considered among the greatest threats to coastal environments. Understanding this coastal hazard is vital for various coastal developments and planning activities. This study examines the sea-level extremes of meteorological origin in the Red Sea. A high-resolution (approximately 500 m) depth-averaged numerical ocean model forced by 5 km dynamically downscaled meteorological fields was implemented to hindcast the sea level of the Red Sea over 37-year, 1980–2016. The model was first validated with observations, showing good agreement with available data. The hindcast model outputs were then analyzed to describe the spatiotemporal features of the sea-level extremes in the Red Sea. The sea-level extremes in the Red Sea developed in response to wind variability over the southern Red Sea and exhibited a basin-wide impact. The magnitudes of the maximum sea levels reached approximately 0.30–0.50 m inside the Red Sea basin, with the highest values (0.85 m) in the Gulf of Suez. The seasonal distribution of the extremes suggests that these are frequent during the winter months (January–March). Assessment of long-term changes in the annual maxima, 99th and 95th percentiles of hourly sea levels indicate no significant trends over the study period.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
- Geography, Planning and Development