Seasonality and toxin production of Pyrodinium bahamense in a Red Sea lagoon

Eulalia Banguera Hinestroza, W. Eikrem, H. Mansour, Ingrid Solberg, Joao Curdia, Karie Ellen Holtermann, B. Edvardsen, Stein Kaartvedt

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15 Scopus citations


Harmful algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense have caused human and economic losses in the last decades. This study, for the first time, documents a bloom of P. bahamense in the Red Sea. The alga was recurrently present in a semi-enclosed lagoon throughout nearly 2 years of observations. The highest cell densities (104-105 cells L-1) were recorded from September to beginning of December at temperatures and salinities of ~26-32 °C and ~41, respectively. The peak of the bloom was recorded mid-November, before a sharp decrease in cell numbers at the end of December. Minimum concentrations in summer were at ~103 cells L-1. A saxitoxin ELISA immunoassay of cultures and water samples confirmed the toxicity of the strain found in the Red Sea. Moreover, a gene expression analysis of the saxitoxin gene domain SxtA4 showed that transcript production peaked at the culmination of the bloom, suggesting a relation between transcript production, sudden cells increment-decline, and environmental factors. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-171
Number of pages9
JournalHarmful Algae
StatePublished - Mar 19 2016


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