Self-healing flexible/stretchable energy storage devices

Xiaoling Tong, Zhengnan Tian, Jingyu Sun, Vincent Tung, Richard B. Kaner, Yuanlong Shao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


During the past decade, flexible/stretchable energy storage devices have garnered increasing attention, with the successful development of wearable electronics. However, due to the repeated deformation accompanied with the electrochemical depletion process, these devices suffer from unavoidable damage, including cracks, crazing, puncture and delamination, which can lead to serious performance degradation or even safety issues. Simultaneously, inspired by biological organs, self-healing capability is found to be a promising approach to address these issues by restoring the mechanical and electrochemical performance. This review first summarizes the structural design and features of various flexible/stretchable energy storage devices, from 1D to 3D configurations. Then, basic concepts and three self-healing mechanisms, including capsule-based systems, vascular-based systems, and intrinsic healing systems are analyzed along with a brief look at existing applications. Then we review all the important parts of state-of-art flexible/stretchable self-healing supercapacitors and batteries including electrodes, electrolytes, substrates and encapsulation. Moreover, a detailed evaluation of methodologies for flexibility, stretchability and self-healing capabilities are described in detail. Finally, the critical challenges and prospects of future promising solutions for self-healing flexible/stretchable energy storage devices or even electronics are provided.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-104
Number of pages27
JournalMaterials Today
StatePublished - Jan 12 2021


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