Semiconductor Emitters in Entropy Sources for Quantum Random Number Generation

Omar Alkhazragi, Hang Lu, Wenbo Yan, Nawal Almaymoni, Tae Yong Park, Yue Wang, Tien Khee Ng, Boon S. Ooi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Random number generation (RNG) is needed for a myriad of applications ranging from secure communication encryption to numerical simulations to sports and games. However, generating truly random numbers can be elusive. Pseudorandom bit generation using computer algorithms provides a high random bit generation rate. Nevertheless, the reliance on predefined algorithms makes it deterministic and predictable once initial conditions are known. Relying on physical phenomena (such as measuring electrical noise or even rolling dice) can achieve a less predictable sequence of bits. Furthermore, if the physical phenomena originate from quantum effects, they can be truly random and completely unpredictable due to quantum indeterminacy. Traditionally, physical RNG is significantly slower than pseudorandom techniques. To meet the demand for high-speed RNG with perfect unpredictability, semiconductor light sources are adopted as parts of the sources of randomness, i.e., entropy sources, in quantum RNG (QRNG) systems. The high speed of their noise, the high efficiency, and the small scale of these devices make them ideal for chip-scale QRNG. Here, the applications and recent advances of QRNG are reviewed using semiconductor emitters. Finally, the performance of these emitters is compared and discuss their potential in future technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2300289
JournalAnnalen der Physik
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • optoelectronics
  • quantum random number generation
  • semiconductor lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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