Simulation of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) with fully coupled regional chemistry transport model: A case study for 2017

Sreyashi Debnath, Chinmay Jena, Sachin D. Ghude, Rajesh Kumar, Gaurav Govardhan, Preeti Gunwani, Subodh Kumar Saha, Anupam Hazra, Samir Pokhrel

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5 Scopus citations


The Indian subcontinent is a major hotspot of enhanced aerosol loading and emission of various chemical compounds due to extensive anthropogenic activities that profoundly impact the hydrological cycle of this region. Using coupled regional atmospheric chemistry transport model, WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry) with fully interactive chemistry and dynamics, we carried out two sets of 122-days simulation experiments: (1) a control experiment without embedding chemistry and (2) a sensitivity experiment with embedding fully coupled MOZART-MOSAIC chemistry, to examine the impact of chemistry on the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) of 2017. The results show that inclusion of chemistry in the model plays a role in altering the spatial distribution of ISMR, reflected by a reduced mean rainfall by about 3 mm/day over the Indian subcontinent. The mean bias of model simulated rainfall reduces from 2.73 mm/day (excluding chemistry) to 1.6 mm/day (including chemistry), and from 1.2 mm/day (excluding chemistry) to 0.81 mm/day (including chemistry) when compared with IMD (India Meteorological Department) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) rainfall data, respectively. Additionally, we found that inclusion of interactive chemistry causes a decrease in the daily convective rainfall by about 3 mm that is contributing largely to the mean rainfall differences. Further, analysis of hydrometeors indicates that the chemistry interacts with the cloud microphysics by modulating the hydrometeor paths of different cloud hydrometeors that consequently impacts the simulation of ISMR over this region. Results indicate that the virtue of detailed and more realistic representation of chemistry in the model has led to more realistic simulation and cannot be ignored in numerical forecasting of ISMR.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118785
JournalAtmospheric Environment
StatePublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


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