Two-dimensional (2D) materials with highly ordered in-plane nanopores are crucial for numerous applications, but their rational synthesis and local structural characterization remain two grand challenges. We illustrate here that single-crystalline ultrathin 2D MOF nanosheets (MONs) with intrinsic porosity can be prepared by exfoliating layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), whose layers are stabilized by sterically bulky groups. As a result, three three-dimensional (3D) isostructural lanthanide MOFs possessing porous layer structures are constructed by coordinating metal ions with an angular dicarboxylate linker derived from chiral 1,1'-biphenyl phosphoric acid with pendant mesityl groups. The Eu-MOF is readily ultrasonic exfoliated into single-crystalline nanosheets with a thickness of ca. 6.0 nm (2 layers) and a lateral size of 1.5 × 3.0 μm2. The detailed structural information, i.e., the pore channels and individual organic and inorganic building units in the framework, is clearly visualized by a low-dose high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) technique. Benefiting from their ultrathin feature, the nanosheets are well embedded into the polymer matrix to form free-standing mixed-matrix membranes. In both the solution and membrane phase, the fluorescence of the MONs can be effectively quenched by a total of 17 chiral terpenes and terpenoids through supramolecular interactions with uncoordinated chiral phosphoric acids, leading to a chiral optical sensor for detecting vapor enantiomers, which is among the most challenging molecular recognition tasks.