In green approaches for electrocatalyst synthesis, sonochemical methods play a powerful role in delivering the abundant surface areas and nano-crystalline properties that are advantageous to electrocatalytic detection. In this article, we proposed the sphere-like and perovskite type of bimetal oxides which are synthesized through an uncomplicated sonochemical procedure. As a yield, the novel calcium titanate (orthorhombic nature) nanoparticles (CaTiO3 NPs) decorated graphene oxide sheets (GOS) were obtained through simple ultrasonic irradiation by a high-intensity ultrasonic probe (Titanium horn; 50 kHz and 60 W). The GOS/CaTiO3 NC were characterized morphologically and chemically through the analytical methods (SEM, XRD, and EDS). Besides, as-prepared nanocomposites were modified on a GCE (glassy carbon electrode) and applied towards electrocatalytic and electrochemical sensing of chemotherapeutic drug flutamide (FD). Notably, FD is a crucial anticancer drug and also a non-steroidal anti-androgen chemical. Mainly, the designed and modified sensor has shown a wide linear range (0.015–1184 µM). A limit of detection was calculated as nanomolar level (5.7 nM) and sensitivity of the electrode is 1.073 μA μM−1 cm−2. The GOS/CaTiO3 modified electrodes have been tested in human blood and urine samples towards anticancer drug detection.