Source-encoded waveform inversion in the Northern Hemisphere

Congyue Cui, Etienne Bachmann, Daniel Peter, Zhaolun Liu, Jeroen Tromp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We use source-encoded waveform inversion to image Earth’s Northern Hemisphere. The encoding method is based on measurements of Laplace coefficients of stationary wavefields. By assigning to each event a unique frequency, we compute Fréchet derivatives for all events simultaneously based on one ‘super’ forward and one ‘super’ adjoint simulation for a small fraction of the computational cost of classical waveform inversion with the same dataset. No cross-talk noise is introduced in the process, and the method does not require all events to be recorded by all stations. Starting from global model GLAD_M25, we performed 100 conjugate gradient iterations using a dataset consisting of 786 earthquakes recorded by 9,846 stations. Synthetic inversion tests show that we achieve good convergence based on this dataset, and we see a consistent misfit reduction during the inversion. The new model, named SE100, has much higher spatial resolution than GLAD_M25, revealing details of the Yellowstone and Iceland hotspots, subduction beneath the Western United States, and the upper mantle structure beneath the Arctic Ocean.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGeophysical Journal International
StatePublished - Sep 21 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics


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