Space-Confined Synthesis of Monolayer Graphdiyne in MXene Interlayer

Jiaqiang Li*, Haicheng Cao, Qingxiao Wang, Hui Zhang, Qing Liu, Cailing Chen, Zhan Shi, Guanxing Li, Ya Kong, Yichen Cai, Jie Shen, Ying Wu, Zhiping Lai*, Yu Han, Jin Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Graphdiyne (GDY) is an artificial carbon allotrope that is conceptually similar to graphene but composed of sp- and sp2-hybridized carbon atoms. Monolayer GDY (ML-GDY) is predicted to be an ideal 2D semiconductor material with a wide range of applications. However, its synthesis has posed a significant challenge, leading to difficulties in experimentally validating theoretical properties. Here, it is reported that in situ acetylenic homocoupling of hexaethynylbenzene within the sub-nanometer interlayer space of MXene can effectively prevent out-of-plane growth or vertical stacking of the material, resulting in ML-GDY with in-plane periodicity. The subsequent exfoliation process successfully yields free-standing GDY monolayers with micrometer-scale lateral dimensions. The fabrication of field-effect transistor on free-standing ML-GDY makes the first measurement of its electronic properties possible. The measured electrical conductivity (5.1 × 103 S m−1) and carrier mobility (231.4 cm2 V−1 s−1) at room temperature are remarkably higher than those of the previously reported multilayer GDY materials. The space-confined synthesis using layered crystals as templates provides a new strategy for preparing 2D materials with precisely controlled layer numbers and long-range structural order.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2308429
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number7
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • confined-space
  • electronic properties
  • graphdiyne
  • monolayer
  • MXene interlayer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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