Elevated particulate sulfate concentrations have been frequently observed in coastal areas when air masses are influenced by continental emissions, especially combustion sources like biomass burning. We studied the SO2 uptake by laboratory-generated droplets containing incense smoke extracts and sodium chloride (IS–NaCl) under irradiation and found enhanced sulfate production over pure NaCl droplets, attributable to photosensitization induced by constituents in IS. Low relative humidity and high light intensity facilitated sulfate formation and increased the SO2 uptake coefficient by IS–NaCl particles. Aging of the IS particles further enhanced sulfate production, attributable to the enhanced secondary oxidant production promoted by increased proportions of nitrogen-containing CHN and oxygen- and nitrogen-containing CHON species under light and air. Experiments using model compounds of syringaldehyde, pyrazine, and 4-nitroguaiacol verified the enhancements of CHN and CHON species in sulfate formation. This work provides experimental evidence of enhanced sulfate production in laboratory-generated IS–NaCl droplets via enhanced secondary oxidant production triggered by photosensitization in multiphase oxidation processes under light and air. Our results can shed light on the possible interactions between sea salt and biomass burning aerosols in enhancing sulfate production.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry