Sustainable Dual-Ion Batteries beyond Li

Zhiming Zhao, Husam N. Alshareef*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The limitations of resources used in current Li-ion batteries may hinder their widespread use in grid-scale energy storage systems, prompting the search for low-cost and resource-abundant alternatives. “Beyond-Li cation” batteries have emerged as promising contenders; however, they confront noteworthy challenges due to the scarcity of suitable host materials for these cations. In contrast, anions, the other crucial component in electrolytes, demonstrate reversible intercalation capacity in specific materials like graphite. The convergence of anion and cation storage has given rise to a new battery technology known as dual-ion batteries (DIBs). This comprehensive review presents the current status, advancements, and future prospects of sustainable DIBs beyond Li. Notably, most DIBs exhibit similar cathode reaction mechanisms involving anion intercalation, while the distinguishing factor lies in the cation types functioning at the anode. Accordingly, the review is organized into sections by various cation types, including Na-, K-, Mg-, Zn-, Ca-, Al-, NH4+-, and proton-based DIBs. Moreover, a perspective on these novel DIBs is presented, along with proposed protocols for investigating DIBs and promising future research directions. It is envisioned that this review will inspire fresh concepts, ideas, and research directions, while raising important questions to further tailor and understand sustainable DIBs, ultimately facilitating their practical realization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2309223
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number7
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • anion storage
  • beyond-Li
  • dual-ion batteries
  • sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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