Synergy of Small Antiviral Molecules on a Black-Phosphorus Nanocarrier: Machine Learning and Quantum Chemical Simulation Insights

Slimane Laref, Fouzi Harrou, Bin Wang, Ying Sun, Amel Laref, Taous-Meriem Laleg-Kirati, Takashi Gojobori, Xin Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Favipiravir (FP) and Ebselen (EB) belong to a broad range of antiviral drugs that have shown active potential as medications against many viruses. Employing molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning (ML) combined with van der Waals density functional theory, we have uncovered the binding characteristics of these two antiviral drugs on a phosphorene nanocarrier. Herein, by using four different machine learning models (i.e., Bagged Trees, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Regression Trees (RT)), the Hamiltonian and the interaction energy of antiviral molecules in a phosphorene monolayer are trained in an appropriate way. However, training efficient and accurate models for approximating the density functional theory (DFT) is the final step in using ML to aid in the design of new drugs. To improve the prediction accuracy, the Bayesian optimization approach has been employed to optimize the GPR, SVR, RT, and BT models. Results revealed that the GPR model obtained superior prediction performance with an R2 of 0.9649, indicating that it can explain 96.49% of the data’s variability. Then, by means of DFT calculations, we examine the interaction characteristics and thermodynamic properties in a vacuum and a continuum solvent interface. These results illustrate that the hybrid drug is an enabled, functionalized 2D complex with vigorous thermostability. The change in Gibbs free energy at different surface charges and temperatures implies that the FP and EB molecules are allowed to adsorb from the gas phase onto the 2D monolayer at different pH conditions and high temperatures. The results reveal a valuable antiviral drug therapy loaded by 2D biomaterials that may possibly open a new way of auto-treating different diseases, such as SARS-CoV, in primary terms.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3521
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 17 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry


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