The El Niño Modoki

Shamal Marathe, Ashok Karumuri

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


From the 20th to 21st century, the tropical Pacific witnessed a hitherto unobserved interannual coupled manifestation, which is now known as the El Niño Modoki (EM). It is now referred to as a new type of El Niño (EL) and not necessarily a distinct phenomenon altogether. Extensive research by many groups has shown that the EM effects on the worldwide temperature and precipitation are distinct and different from that of EL. This chapter presents the EM characteristics, dynamics, nonlinearities, and teleconnections, besides discussing distinctions between the canonical EL and EM. It also provides a brief review of the emerging knowledge of the associated climate impacts of EM. As the global climate warms up it becomes necessary to have information about whether the frequency and amplitude of Modokis are going to increase, and what will be its possible implications for society. This chapter also reviews the outputs from recent studies and the possible changes in EM under the future global warming scenarios.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTropical and Extratropical Air-Sea Interactions: Modes of Climate Variations
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9780128181560
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


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