The peculiar wind and wave climatology of the Arabian Gulf

Sabique Langodan, Luigi Cavaleri, Alvise Benetazzo, Luciana Bertotti, Hari Prasad Dasari, Ibrahim Hoteit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Based on a 40-year hindcast, we analyze the climatology and long-term trends of wind and waves in the Arabian Gulf. We identify and characterize four dominant wind systems, and their related mean wave conditions and long-term trends. Focusing on the summer Shamal wind, we observed a mild decrease in the number of Shamal events with time, whereas their intensity shows little to no variation. Further, we revealed a tendency toward an extension of the summer Shamal season from August to September. On a short time scale, the related wind fields show an evident daily oscillation associated with the daily heating of the Arabian Peninsula, with wind speeds peaking at 3:00 p.m. local time (UTC+3) on land and 12 h later on the sea. The long-term analysis conducted herein reveals limited, but significant, trends in surface pressure and related west-to-east pressure gradients in August. In September, the observed increasing number of Shamal storms is associated with an increase of the longitudinal local pressure gradient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number116158
JournalOcean Engineering
StatePublished - Dec 15 2023


  • Arabian Gulf
  • Long-term hindcast
  • Ocean waves
  • Shamal winds
  • Trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering


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