Thermodynamics and kinetic analysis of membrane: Challenges and perspectives

Tausif Ahmad*, Lubna M. Rehman, Reham Al-Nuaimi, Jean Pierre Benjamin Boross de Levay, Roshni Thankamony, Muhammad Mubashir, Zhiping Lai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The ultimate structure of the membrane is determined using two important effects: (i) thermodynamic effect and (ii) kinetic effect. Controlling the mechanism of kinetic and thermodynamic processes in phase separation is essential for enhancing membrane performance. However, the relationship between system parameters and the ultimate membrane morphology is still largely empirical. This review focuses on the fundamental ideas behind thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) methods, including both kinetic and thermodynamic elements. The thermodynamic approach to understanding phase separation and the effect of different interaction parameters on membrane morphology has been discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review explores the capabilities and limitations of different macroscopic transport models used for the last four decades to explore the phase inversion process. The application of molecular simulations and phase field to understand phase separation has also been briefly examined. Finally, it discusses the thermodynamic approach to understanding phase separation and the consequence of different interaction parameters on membrane morphology, as well as possible directions for artificial intelligence to fill the gaps in the literature. This review aims to provide comprehensive knowledge and motivation for future modeling work for membrane fabrication via new techniques such as nonsolvent-TIPS, complex-TIPS, non-solvent assisted TIPS, combined NIPS-TIPS method, and mixed solvent phase separation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number139430
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Membrane formation
  • NIPS
  • Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis
  • TIPS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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