Tin Oxide Electron-Selective Layers for Efficient, Stable, and Scalable Perovskite Solar Cells

Cesur Altinkaya, Erkan Aydin, Esma Ugur, Furkan Halis Isikgor, Anand Selvin Subbiah, Michele de Bastiani, Jiang Liu, Aslihan Babayigit, Thomas Allen, Frédéric Laquai, Abdullah Yildiz, Stefaan De Wolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Scopus citations


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become a promising photovoltaic (PV) technology, where the evolution of the electron-selective layers (ESLs), an integral part of any PV device, has played a distinctive role to their progress. To date, the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2 )/compact TiO2 stack has been among the most used ESLs in state-of-the-art PSCs. However, this material requires high-temperature sintering and may induce hysteresis under operational conditions, raising concerns about its use toward commercialization. Recently, tin oxide (SnO2 ) has emerged as an attractive alternative ESL, thanks to its wide bandgap, high optical transmission, high carrier mobility, suitable band alignment with perovskites, and decent chemical stability. Additionally, its low-temperature processability enables compatibility with temperature-sensitive substrates, and thus flexible devices and tandem solar cells. Here, the notable developments of SnO2 as a perovskite-relevant ESL are reviewed with emphasis placed on the various fabrication methods and interfacial passivation routes toward champion solar cells with high stability. Further, a techno-economic analysis of SnO2 materials for large-scale deployment, together with a processing-toxicology assessment, is presented. Finally, a perspective on how SnO2 materials can be instrumental in successful large-scale module and perovskite-based tandem solar cell manufacturing is provided.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2005504
JournalAdvanced Materials
StatePublished - Mar 3 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Tin Oxide Electron-Selective Layers for Efficient, Stable, and Scalable Perovskite Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this