Water entry of projectiles

Tadd T. Truscott, Brenden P. Epps, Jesse Belden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

307 Scopus citations


The free-surface impact of solid objects has been investigated for well over a century. This canonical problem is influenced by many physical parameters, including projectile geometry, material properties, fluid properties, and impact parameters. Through advances in high-speed imaging and visualization techniques, discoveries about the underlying physics have improved our understanding of these phenomena. Improvements to analytical and numerical models have led to critical insights into cavity formation, the depth and time of pinch-off, forces, and trajectories for myriad different impact parameters. This topic spans a wide range of regimes, from low-speed entry phenomena dominated by surface tension to high-speed ballistics, for which cavitation is important. This review surveys experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies over this broad range, utilizing canonical images where possible to enhance intuition and insight into the rich phenomena. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-378
Number of pages24
JournalAnnual Review of Fluid Mechanics
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics


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