The tradition of cockfighting is widespread throughout the world. There is no doubt that the gamecock has evolved together with the human culture of cockfighting for a long time. In Japan, there is a group of gamecocks called "Shamo" that are used specifically for cockfighting. However, the process of the geographic distribution of cockfighting and the influx route of gamecocks into Japan are totally unclear. The molecular evolutionary study of gamecocks is obviously useful to gain profound insight into the understanding of not only the evolutionary origin of "Shamo" but also the distribution process of cockfighting as a culture. In this study, we collected blood samples of gamecocks from 11 different prefectures in Japan. Then, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using a total of 42 mtDNAs (D-loop, 1100 bp) sequenced. It showed that Japanese Shamo was clearly separated into two different groups: One group contains the samples from the island of Okinawa and the other group is composed of the samples mainly from Kyushu and Honshu of Japan. It suggests that Japanese Shamo must have been brought to Japan from two different origins. Our examination of historical records showed that the results of the phylogenetic analysis is consistent with the view that Japanese Shamo was originated from Southeast Asia and the mainland China independently, but was geographically a bit mixed afterwards.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Oct 23 2003|
- Gallus gallus domesticus
- Mitochondorial DNA
- Molecular phylogeny
ASJC Scopus subject areas