Iodine's Crucial Contribution to the Breakdown of Hybrid Tin-Lead Perovskite: Unveiling the Mechanism of Deterioration

  • Asayil Alsulami

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


In developing photovoltaic technology for commercial use, it is essential to prioritize low cost, high efficiency, and long-term stability, along with low toxicity and quick energy payback time. Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are among the most promising photovoltaic materials due to their exceptional efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, their practical significance remains unclear due to their notoriously short device operation duration. Mixed-metal tin-lead perovskites are a class of perovskites that have captured researchers' attention due to their unique optoelectronic features, including a small bandgap, making them useful for various applications (tandems, NIR light detection, and imaging e.g.). Still, the low ambient stability of tin-lead perovskites obstructs their commercialization, necessitating extensive research into their underlying breakdown mechanisms. This study aims to better understand these mechanisms and the involvement of halide chemistry, specifically emphasizing the significant role of iodine in perovskite deterioration. Our findings reveal that tin-lead-based perovskites experience cyclic degradation, with iodine and SnI4 as key degradation products that harm the stability of the perovskite. Investigating the impact of iodine is critical because it is a common component of the perovskite material, and its presence has been shown to play a crucial role in the optoelectronic properties of the perovskite. However, the presence of iodine can also lead to the degradation of the perovskite material over time, reducing the efficiency and lifespan of the perovskite solar cells. Therefore, understanding the role of iodine in perovskite deterioration is essential to improve the stability and durability of tin-lead perovskites and bring them closer to commercialization. By gaining insight into the degradation mechanisms of tin-lead perovskites, we can develop effective strategies to mitigate their degradation, enhance their stability and lifespan, and unlock their full potential for use in various photovoltaic applications, contributing to a more sustainable and environmentally conscious future.
Date of AwardJun 4 2023
Original languageEnglish (US)
Awarding Institution
  • Physical Sciences and Engineering
SupervisorDerya Baran (Supervisor)


  • Perovskite- Degradation- tin-lead

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